English

At Lime Tree Primary, English is taught as a stand-alone subject and as part of a topic-based, creative curriculum. We use the ‘Power of Reading’ teaching sequences to deliver English lessons centred around high-quality texts from a range of genres. These texts are explored in depth in order for pupils to develop skills in speaking, listening, reading and writing through a wide range of tasks. We encourage pupils to express themselves creatively and imaginatively, using discussion, drawing, drama and writing to communicate effectively.

Throughout the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), Reception study the prime area of ‘Communication and Language’, and the specific area of ‘Literacy’ as outlined in Early Years Foundation Stage framework 2021. The children also receive daily phonics lessons taught using our own Lime Tree progression that teaches sets of sounds and high frequency words for a clear progression of phonic skills.

In Key Stage 1 and 2 pupils learn to become enthusiastic and critical readers of poetry, fiction and non-fiction texts through the ‘Power of Reading’ teaching. Throughout the school, pupils learn to adapt their writing style, language choices and tone to write for different audiences and purposes. Other key aspects of the English curriculum, including spelling, handwriting and phonics are taught through both discrete lessons and embedded application of the main skills during English lessons.

We want all children to leave Lime Tree able to read fluently, confidently and with good comprehension skills (both when listening and reading). As with all elements of the English curriculum, the teaching of reading is embedded during English lessons and all areas of the curriculum. On top of this, in EY and KS1, children will have daily phonics lessons to support the development of early reading through decoding and word reading skills. In classes from Y1-Y6, children will have a daily whole class reading lesson to explicitly teach the skills needed to become a confident, independent reader. Reading for pleasure is promoted through exposure to wide range of texts to engage children’s interest. We want everyone to develop their own love of reading as part of their lifelong learning journey.

In Early Years Foundation Stage and KS1, children will have daily phonics lessons to support the development of early reading through decoding and word reading skills.. In KS2, this approach is used in the teaching of spelling.

EYFS Milestones

By the end of Reception, children will be able to:

Reading:

  • Say a sound for each letter in the alphabet and at least 10 digraphs.

  • Read words consistent with their phonic knowledge by sound blending.

  • Read aloud simple sentences and books that are consistent with their phonic knowledge, including some high frequency words.

  • Demonstrate an understanding of what has been read to them by recalling and retelling stories and narratives using recently introduced vocabulary.

  • Anticipate, where appropriate, key events in a story.

  • Apply recently introduced vocabulary during discussions about stories, non-fiction, rhymes and poems and during role-play.

Writing

  • To hear, say and write the dominant sounds in words.

  • To write words, using recognisable letters, which can be read by themselves and others.

  • To write the appropriate grapheme for the phoneme identified.

  • To write simple captions and sentences which are phonetically plausible.

  • To write a range of high frequency words correctly.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To write your own name with a capital letter at the beginning.

  • To write CVC words with lowercase letters.

  • To write labels and captions as well as simple sentences

  • To begin to use finger spaces and full stops.

  • To write some high frequency words correctly.

Phonics

  • To recognise all Phase 2-3 graphemes.

  • To apply knowledge of Phase 2-3 phonics to their reading and writing.

  • To be able to read simple captions and sentences.

  • To be able to write a simple caption/sentence which is phonetically plausible and can be read by others.

  • To read and write a range of phase 3 high frequency non-decodable words correctly.

  • To read some phase 4 CCV, CCVC and CVCC words.

Year 1 Milestones

By the end of Year 1, children will be able to:


Reading

  • Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words.

  • Read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught.

  • Read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings.

  • Read words with contractions (for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll), and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s).

  • Re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.

  • Link what they read or hear read to their own experiences.

  • Recognise and join in with predictable phrases.

  • Discuss word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known.

  • Check that the text makes sense to them as they read and correct inaccurate reading.

  • Draw inferences on the basis of what is being said and done.

  • Participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say.

Writing

  • To form lower case letters and keep it legible on a line.

  • To orally state sentences before writing them and read their work to check it makes sense.

  • To consistently use capital letters at the start of a sentence and a full stop at the end.

  • To recognise all vowels a, e, i, o, u.

  • To write questions using a question mark and an exclamation mark.

  • To join words and clauses using ‘and’.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To identify and name all letters of the alphabet.

  • To know what a noun and verb are, giving examples.

  • To be able to add -s or -es to pluralise words.

  • To know the difference between a full stop, question mark and exclamation mark.

  • To understand and use the suffixes -ed, -ing, -est and the prefix un-.

  • To understand and use apostrophes for omission.

Phonics

  • To recognise all Phase 2-5 graphemes

  • To apply their knowledge of Phase 2-5 phonics to their reading and writing

  • To be able to write multiple sentences that can be read by others

  • To recognise and spell Phase 2-5 high frequency non-decodable words correctly.

Year 2 Milestones

By the end of Year 2, children will be able to:


Reading

  • Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent.

  • Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as listed above.

  • Read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word.

  • Read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation.

  • Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently.

  • Become increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales.

  • Recognise simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry.

  • Discuss their favourite words and phrases.

  • Understand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher.

  • Draw inferences on the basis of what is being said and done.

  • Predict what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far.

  • Explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves.

Writing

  • To write sentences using different forms and the correct punctuation.

  • To use coordinating conjunctions such as (or, and and but)

  • To know what adjectives and adverbs are and use them in sentences, e.g. expanded noun phrases.

  • To use commas to separate items in a list.

  • To use the past and present tense correctly.

  • To write poetry.

  • To organise ideas into paragraphs.

  • To recognise different prefixes and suffixes.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To write statements, commands, questions and exclamations, using the correct punctuation.

  • To know what an adjective and adverb are, using these in your writing.

  • To understand and use the suffixes -ly, -less, -full, -ment and -ness.

  • To understand and use subordinating conjunctions: when, if, that, because.

  • To understand and use coordinating conjunctions: or, and, but.

  • To use past or present tense consistently within a piece of writing.

  • To use a possessive apostrophe.

Year 3 Milestones

By the end of Year 3, children will be able to:


Reading

  • Read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.

  • Read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes.

  • Increase their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally.

  • Prepare poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination.

  • Understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context.

  • Draw inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.

  • Identify main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarise these.

  • Retrieve and record information from non-fiction.

Writing

  • To know how to look up words in a dictionary using the first three letters of a word.

  • To know what prepositions and determiners are and use them in writing correctly.

  • To check and edit work for punctuation and spelling errors.

  • Use inverted commas to punctuate direct speech.

  • To recognise and use subordinate and coordinate conjunctions.

  • To use stanzas to separate ideas in a poem not paragraphs.

  • To write a free verse poem.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To know the difference between vowels and consonants.

  • To use the determiners ‘a’ or ‘an’ correctly.

  • To understand and use the prefixes: dis-, pre-, mis-, sub-, tele-, auto-, super-.

  • To understand and use paragraphs to organise ideas.

  • To know how to signify speech with speech marks.

Year 4 Milestones

By the end of Year 4, children will be able to:


Reading

  • Read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.

  • Read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes.

  • Increase their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally.

  • Prepare poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination.

  • Understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context.

  • Draw inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.

  • Identify main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarise these.

  • Retrieve and record information from non-fiction.

Writing

  • To use fronted adverbials in writing and add the commas afterwards.

  • To use apostrophes correctly.

  • To know the difference between plural and possessive apostrophes.

  • To vary verb use in sentences and know how this can change the meaning of a sentence.

  • To know how suffixes and prefixes alter a word.

  • To understand and write an effective plot in a narrative.

  • To understand themes.

  • To organise paragraphs around a theme.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To understand and use fronted adverbials, including the use of a comma.

  • To understand and use the prefixes: in-, il-, im-, ir, anti-, inter- and suffixes: -ation, -ous.

  • To use a range of pronouns to avoid repetition in writing.

  • To use other punctuation within inverted commas.

  • To understand the present perfect verb form.

Year 5 Milestones

By the end of Year 5, children will be able to:


Reading

  • Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.

  • Read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes.

  • Recommend books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices.

  • Learn a wider range of poetry by heart and prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience.

  • Ask questions to improve their understanding drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.

  • Summarise the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.

  • Discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader.

  • Retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction.

  • Explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary.

Writing

  • To recognise and use modal verbs correctly.

  • To know relative pronouns and write effective relative clauses.

  • To use a thesaurus independently for synonyms in writing.

  • To use commas, brackets and dashes for parenthesis.

  • To evaluate, assess and edit own work and others.

  • To use commas to avoid ambiguity.

  • To use expanded noun phrases and adverbials.

  • To build cohesion in writing.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To understand and use modal verbs e.g. might, should, perhaps, surely.

  • To understand and use relative clauses.

  • To understand and use parenthesis, including use of commas, brackets and dashes.

  • To use hyphens to join words e.g. man-eating.

  • To use a range of devices to build cohesion across and within paragraphs.

  • To know the difference between modal imperative and subjunctive verb forms and use them in writing.

Year 6 Milestones

By the end of Year 6, children will be able to:


Reading

  • Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.

  • Read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes.

  • Recommend books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices.

  • Learn a wider range of poetry by heart and prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience.

  • Ask questions to improve their understanding drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.

  • Summarise the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.

  • Discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader.

  • Retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction.

  • Explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary.

Writing

  • To understand and use colons and semicolons in writing.

  • To draft and write, describing settings, characters and atmosphere. Integrating dialogue to convey character and advance action.

  • To understand and use active and passive verbs.

  • To know the subjective form.

  • To know the difference between formal and informal speech and how to use appropriate vocabulary when writing for a specific audience.

  • To use morphology and etymology to clarify meanings of words.

  • To use different layout devices, such as headings, columns or tables to structure a text.

Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling

  • To know what colon and semicolon are and use them correctly when writing.

  • To use passive and perfect forms of verbs.

  • To use bullet points and hyphens appropriately.

  • To use a wider range of cohesive devices to link ideas across paragraphs: repetition of a word, adverbials and ellipsis.

  • To apply knowledge of how words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms when reading and writing.